Category Archives: Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

Texas Court ACA Ruling: 5 Takeaways

If you are in the benefits business you have already heard about a December 14, 2018 ruling by a federal trial court judge in Texas, that the entirety of the Affordable Care Act is unconstitutional.  The following 5 takeaway points put the ruling into context and provide some indications of where things could head from here.

1.  For now, the ACA remains in effect.

The ruling did not stop the government, via “injunction,” from continuing to enforce the ACA as it currently stands. Instead it reached a legal conclusion (holding) that (a) the individual mandate (which imposed a tax on individuals who failed to secure coverage) was integral to the whole ACA (“the ACA keystone”), that (b) the individual mandate was constitutional because it fell within Congress’s power to levy taxes (as determined by the Supreme Court in NFIB v. Sebelius), and that (c) the reduction of the tax imposed under the individual mandate to $0 (via the 2017 Tax Cut and Jobs Act) rendered the individual mandate, and hence the entire ACA, unconstitutional.  The Departments of Health and Human Services (“HHS”) and the IRS were defendants in the Texas court case, supporting the ACA, and following the ruling the Trump Administration issued a statement that HHS “will continue administering and enforcing all aspects of the ACA as it had before the court issued its decision.” As one consequence, applicable large employers (ALEs) must continue to comply with employer shared responsibility rules (both offers of coverage, and ACA reporting due in early 2019).

2.  The ruling is not the last word on the ACA’s fate.

As mentioned the ruling is at the trial court level in the federal court system.  It almost certainly will be appealed to the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals and then possibly to the Supreme Court. Legal scholar Nicholas Bagley has opined that the Fifth Circuit Court may have little patience for the court’s holding.  The appeals process could take months, in any event.

3.  The ruling creates uncertainty re: the ACA’s fate.

The ACA has survived two Supreme Court challenges, plus two years of full control of Congress and the White House by its most severe opponents. It had seemed to reach safe ground in recent months; indeed, some ACA concepts such as no pre-existing condition exclusions and coverage of dependents to age 26 had broad appeal in the mid-term elections, including among some Republicans. With the Texas court’s ruling, the ACA’s fate is back in watch and wait mode.  Resolution of the uncertainty will have to await completion of the legal processes described in Point No. 2.  Generally speaking, uncertainty is not good for employers, insurers, or the general economy, so eyes will be on how these sectors react in the wake of the ruling.

4.  The political landscape has changed since the last time the ACA’s constitutionality was in question.

As mentioned, some ACA provisions now appear to be “baked in” to the public’s concept of government entitlements.  Unlike in prior years, elected officials are now loathe to align themselves with the law’s total repeal. (Even the HHS notice regarding continued enforcement of the ACA expressly mentioned the ban on pre-existing condition exclusions.) So reaction to the ruling from known ACA foes has been measured, if made at all.  Prior legal setbacks for the ACA have become political footballs, but  public debate over the issues hopefully will have a more civil tone, this time around.

5.  As the ACA’s fate hangs in the balance, more radical health care reform proposals are just around the corner.

Some of the newly empowered Democratic winners of the mid-term elections are entering Washington, D.C. with ideas for health care reform that go far beyond what the ACA accomplished, including single payer systems.  Single payer systems, including, for instance, a major expansion of the Medicaid program, would disrupt the nexus between healthcare and employment that exists for many Americans.  These concepts first got broad national attention in the last presidential campaign and you can expect buzz around them to increase as the next presidential election in 2020 approaches.

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Filed under Affordable Care Act, Employer Shared Responsibility, Post-Election ACA, PPACA, Pre-Existing Condition Exclusion, Single Payer Health Systems, Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

IRS Gifts Large Employers an ACA Reporting Extension

Under the ACA, Applicable Large Employers (ALEs) must comply with annual reporting and disclosure duties under Section 6056 of the Internal Revenue Code (“Code”). These include filing, with the IRS, a Form 1094-C transmittal form, together with copies of Form 1095-C individual statements that must also be furnished to full-time employees (and to part-time employees who enroll in self-insured group health plans).

In a holiday-time gift to ALEs, the IRS just extended the deadline to furnish Form 1095-Cs to employees by 30 days, from January 31, 2018, to March 2, 2018. ALEs must still file Form 1095-C employee statements with the IRS by the normal deadline of February 28, 2018 (paper) or April 2, 2018 (e-file). However, due to the across-the-board extension to March 2, 2018, the IRS will not be granting any permissive 30-day extensions to furnish Form 1095-C to employees. And, while granting the extension, the IRS still encourages ALEs to furnish the 2017 employee statements as soon as they are able, and also to file or furnish late rather than not file or furnish at all, where applicable. ALEs may still obtain an automatic extension on the filing deadlines by filing Form 8809, and may obtain an additional, permissive 30-day filing extension upon a showing of good cause. In summary, the deadlines for 2017 ACA reporting are as follows:

File 2017 Form 1094-C with IRS:           February 28, 2018 (paper); April 2, 2018, (e-file)

File 2017 Form 1095-Cs w/IRS:               February 28, 2018 (paper); April 2, 2018 (e-file)

Furnish 2017 Form 1095-Cs to Employees:       March 2, 2018

Additionally, the IRS extended, for another year, the transition relief that has been in place since ACA reporting duties first arose in 2015. Under the transition relief, the IRS will not impose penalties on employers who file Forms 1094-C or 1095-C for 2017 that have missing or inaccurate information (such as SSNs and dates of birth), so long as the employer can show that it made a good faith effort to fulfill information reporting duties. There is no relief granted for ALEs who fail to meet the deadlines (as extended) for filing or furnishing the ACA forms, or who fail to report altogether.

This news is be welcome given that all U.S. employers will be grappling with new income tax withholding tables early in 2018 given the passage of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, which President Trump signed in to law on December 22, 2018. We’ll be providing more information on the Act’s impact on employment benefits after the Christmas holiday.

 

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Filed under Affordable Care Act, Applicable Large Employer Reporting, Health Care Reform, Minimum Essential Coverage Reporting, Payroll Issues, Post-Election ACA, PPACA, Tax Cuts and Jobs Act

Proposed Tax Reform Targets Executive Deferred Compensation

Buried deep within the 429 pages of the tax reform proposal, titled the “Tax Cuts and Jobs Act,” is a provision that would significantly change the landscape for executive deferred compensation plans. Specifically, Section 3801 of the Act, titled “Nonqualified Deferred Compensation,” would move the point of taxation of most forms of deferred compensation from the time of actual payout to the executive, which is generally the case under the current rules, to the point at which the executive need no longer perform substantial services in order to receive the compensation; e.g., the point at which the funds “vest.”  Other changes are proposed, but this single timing issue would remove much of the appeal of deferred compensation plans. The changes, if they become law, would affect not just deferrals of cash compensation, but also equity forms of compensation such as stock options and stock appreciation rights.

The Act would also repeal the current compliance regime for nonqualified deferred compensation, known as the “Enron rules” (because they were inspired by manipulation of deferred compensation by certain Enron executives), and codified at Code Section 409A, which have been in place since 2005.  The new rules, if passed into law, will be set forth under Section 409B of the Code.

This is not the first time that Congress has proposed these changes to deferred compensation; a version of them appeared in the Tax Reform Act of 2014, also under Section 3801 of that bill.  An excellent and detailed overview of the those earlier proposed changes appeared in the Summer 2014 issue of the Benefits Law Journal.  The article deserves re-reading now that deferred compensation reform is back on the table under the Tax Cut and Jobs Act.

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Filed under Deferred Compensation, Section 409A, Section 409B, Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, Top-Hat Exemption